2000 Level Courses

GEOG 2030

The End Of The Earth As We Know It: Global Environmental Change
AP GEOG 2030 3.00
This course explores how human society has transformed the earth system and investigates the social, economic and political implications of contemporary environmental change. Topics include deforestation, climate change, biodiversity loss and natural disasters such as hurricanes, flooding and drought. Internet access is required.
Expanded Course Description
This course is designed to introduce students to human – environment geography by exploring both historical and contemporary human-induced transformations of the earth system. The objectives are to better understand how and why the global environment is changing; what the societal implications of these changes are; and the ways in which individuals and societies adapt to, respond to, and mitigate environmental change. We will investigate the decision to act and the decision not to act on the part of individuals, governments, activist organizations and corporations. While it is tempting to see global environmental change as a large scale phenomenon and problem, it is not limited to the global scale. Both the impacts of global environmental change (GEC) and responses to it occur across scale and are geographically variable. In order to stress this dimension of GEC, this course will examine the local manifestations of these global processes. Much of our tutorial discussion regarding the effects of and responses to global environmental change will be focused on three locales: Highland Thailand, Urban Canada: Toronto and Arctic Canada.
Format: Online Lecture + 2h Tutorial per week

GEOG 2060

Historical Geography
AP GEOG 2060 3.00
An exploration of the content of and approaches to historical geography, with a focus on major historical shifts in the geography and geographic knowledge of human beings, such as imperialism, mass migration and urbanization.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 2070

Empire, State & Power: An Introduction To Political Geography
AP GEOG 2070 3.00
This course explores the reciprocal links between geography and political processes at the global, national and local levels. Political geography asks us to understand the historical and contemporary relationships between power and space, focusing on empires, nations, states, territory, and borders. More broadly, the course highlights the importance of space and place for processes of domination.
Expanded Course Description
Throughout this course, emphasis is placed on a critical reading and analysis of the ideology, expansion and representation of empire, colonialism, settlers and the colonized. The historical- geographical perspective will highlight the importance of space and place as mechanism of control and domination, at multiple scales. Topics covered include imperial geography; geography and ideology of empire; British       Empire; slave trade; French Empire and colonialism; the Maghreb and colonial rule; Empire of Japan;           Japanese colonization of Korea and; Canada and colonialism; empire and culture; and empire, knowledge and scholarship. Throughout the course concepts and discussions of gender, race, sexuality and borders will be addressed and incorporated into each week’s lectures. This course will emphasize not only a critical understanding of empire and colonialism through texts and readings, but also through maps and photographs. Case studies include readings on Jamaica, Morocco, Algeria and Korea.
Format: 3h Lecture

GEOG 2075

Everyday Life: Introduction To Cultural Geography
AP GEOG 2075 3.00
This course critically explores 'everyday life' and the spaces and places through which it is experiences, reproduced, represented and negotiated.  Topics covered include, geographies of mobility; urban parks; geographies of capitalism; geographies of cinema; surveillance; geographies of boredom and silence; geographies of deliberation and everyday sites of citizenship and identity formation.
Expanded Course Description
Throughout this course, emphasis is placed on a critical reading and analysis of ‘everyday life’ and the spaces and places through which it is experienced, represented and negotiated. Students will be introduced to important socio-spatial theorists who have demonstrated that the ‘everyday’, ‘banal’ and ‘common’ are as important as the ‘macro’, ‘global’ and ‘exceptional’, and that, in fact, they are inseparable. As such, the concept of scale and scalar processes will be emphasized in the lectures and assignments. Topics covered include, geographies of mobility; urban parks; geographies of capitalism; geographies of cinema; the banality of surveillance; geographies of boredom and silence; geographies of deliberation and everyday sites of citizenship and identity formation. Other than academic readings, students will be asked to consider other means/media of sharing and constructing knowledge about everyday life, including their own knowledge about everyday life spaces. Photographs, novels, visual art and music will be used to demonstrate how geographies of everyday life are articulated and represented in other practices of everyday life. Notions of gender, class, race, sexuality will be incorporated into each week’s lectures and discussions.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 2105

Money, Power And Space: Introduction To Economic Geography
AP GEOG 2105 3.00
This course introduces the field of economic geography, addressing spatial dimensions of: wealth and poverty; structures of production and commodity chains; patterns and processes of retailing and consumption; the role of states in economic governance; the struggles of organized labour; the organization of transnational corporations; and, the ways in which ethnic identity and gender shape economic life.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 2220

Urban Geography
AP GEOG 2220 3.00
In a world where over 50 per cent of the population lives in urban areas, cities play a siginificant role in shaping the social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental conditions of people's everyday lives.  This course introduces the geographical literature on the urbanization process in historical and contemporary perspective.  It provides students with a necessary general survey of the characteristics of urban processes and patterns, urban systems and structure, and urban social issues from a geographical perspective.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 2305

Identities: Introduction to Social Geography
AP GEOG 2305 3.00
This course examines the production, reproduction and mediation of identities through space and place at various scales.  The course will introduce students to the complex relations between space, place and identity, and ask them to think critically about the spaces of their own lives.
Expanded Course Description
Throughout this course, emphasis is placed on a critical reading and analysis of the production, reproduction and mediation of identities though space, place and scales. This course will introduce students to the complex relations between space, place and identity, as well as the ways in which these relations and their practices are manifested in space and time. Topics covered include imperialism, colonialism and national identities; citizenship and identity politics; mobility and identity; race, class and identity formation, politics and movements; criminalized identities; museums and architecture; global cities; globalization and postmodernity; corporate identities; and sexualities and genders. In addition to academic readings, students will be asked to consider the ways in which architecture, maps, photographs, political slogans, corporate logos, visual art, music, and film help construct, represents and mediate identities.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 2310

Introduction To Refugee And Migration Studies
AP GEOG 2310 6.00
An introduction to the problem of refugees: conceptual issues (definitions, refugee rights, ethical norms), the historical background, Canadian policy and the issues in specific areas of the world - Africa, Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
Expanded Course Description
Expanded Description: Remote sensing is introduced as the process of examining, measuring, and studying our planet from a distance, without physical contact. As an extension of photography, remote sensing relies on an understanding and digital recording of energy interactions at or near the surface of the Earth and within the atmosphere. The science of these interactions will be presented as a foundation to understanding the theoretical utility and application of remote sensing techniques. This course will then explore the typical sequence of image acquisition, processing, analysis, and accuracy assessment as related to physical and human influenced environments.
Cross-listings: AP/MIST 2000 6.00
Recommendations: A 1000 level social science
Format: 3h Lecture Per Week

GEOG 2340

Geoinformatics: Introduction
AP GEOG 2340 3.00
Geoinformatics integrates computer science, geosciences, engineering, and cartography such that the geographical context of phenomena can be measured, quantified, presented, and analyzed. Geographic position forms a critical component in a new information infrastructure. This course introduces the historical context to geoinformatics by tracing some of the more important historical developments before examining many contemporary sub-domains of the discipline.
Expanded Course Description
Geoinformatics integrates computer science, geosciences, certain branches of engineering, and cartography such that the geographical context of any phenomena can be measured, quantified, presented, and analyzed. In essence, geographic position forms a critical component in a new information infrastructure. This course will introduce and explore the historical context to geoinformatics by tracing some of the more important historical developments before examining many of the sub-domains of this discipline. We will explore and provide experience with cartography, global positioning systems (GPS), vector and raster geographic information systems (GIS), surveying, photogrammetry, remote sensing, visualization, and other related topics. This course is suitable for geographers and education students majoring in geography, or those genuinely curious about technologies related to geographical analysis, this course will provide a foundation to geoinformatics and basic computer cartography, forming an ideal precursor to GIS and remote sensing courses at the upper level. Computers will be used in the lab sessions and basic computer skills are a prerequisite. Some fieldwork on campus is required.
Exclusions: AP/SC/GEOG2350 3.00
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week

GEOG 2400

The Hydrosphere
AP GEOG 2400 6.00
This course examines the physical processes and the environmental factors that govern the movement of water and energy in lakes, rivers, oceans and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Boundary-layer climates and mechanisms of water movement and storage are emphasized.
Expanded Course Description
This course examines the movement and storage of water in various phases near the Earth’s surface and the energy driving the hydrologic cycle. The focus is on the interdependency of water and energy in the hydrosphere. The course begins with a discussion of basic atmospheric and hydrologic processes and then traces the flow of energy and water to and beneath the Earth’s surface. Then the return of water from the subsurface to the atmosphere is examined, initially in simple vegetation-free environments and finally in more complex forest systems. Aspects of the cryosphere (snow and ice), and the lateral redistribution of water as runoff on slopes and in drainage basins will also be examined. We will also investigate some of the implications for changing land-use and climate change of these processes. The course is designed to combine a theoretical understanding of the hydrosphere with applied field measurements.
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week

GEOG 2420

Introduction To Statistical Analysis In Geography
AP GEOG 2420 3.00
This introductory course aims to provide a working knowledge of several statistical techniques which are widely used in many branches of geography. Some attention is also given to broader questions concerning the nature of the scientific method.
Expanded Course Description
The course aims to provide the fundamental concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics and a working knowledge of several standard statistical techniques which are widely used in many different branches of geography. Examples of such techniques include measures of central tendency and dispersion (descriptive statistics), comparisons of means and proportions (inferential statistics) and correlation and regression analyses (analyzing relationships and causation). These techniques are used in numerous disciplines, and are not in themselves 'geographical'. Consideration will be given to the nature of geographical data and the examples used in lectures and assignments will be geographical in content. Emphasis will be placed on the concepts underlying each procedure as much as on the mechanics of the numerical calculations. This policy reflects the belief that "knowing why" is just as important as "knowing how". Computers will be used in the lab sessions but no prior knowledge of computers or specific computer programs is assumed.
Exclusions: AP/ECON 2500 3.00, AP/POLS 3300 6.00, AP/SOCI 3030 6.00, HH/KINE 2050 3.00, HH/KINE 3150 3.00, HH/PSYC 2020 6.00, HH/PSYC 2021 3.00, SC/BIOL 2060 3.00, SC/MATH 2560 3.00, SC/MATH 2565 3.00, SC/MATH 2570 3.00, AK/ADMS 3320 3.00
Prerequisites: 24 Credits successfully completed
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week

GEOG 2500

Introduction To Vegetation And Soils
AP GEOG 2500 3.00
This course integrates key topics in soil science (pedology), biogeography, and terrestrial ecosystem ecology to provide an introduction to the structure and functioning of vegetation and soil systems at both local and global scales. Methods of field sampling and laboratory analyses will be emphasized in labs.
Expanded Course Description
This course explores the structure, function, and dynamic nature of vegetation and soil systems across the major global biomes (e.g. deserts, rainforests). We will examine the role of climate, topography, and time in structuring terrestrial ecosystems at different spatial scales (from local to global), and the role humans play in disrupting ecosystem processes. Students will learn about the formation and development of soils, their physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the ecosystem services that soils provide (e.g. flood regulation, food provision). We will discuss the relationship between plants and environmental factors in order to explain patterns in the distribution of vegetation. Students will also learn about how soils and plants interact to control the cycling of water, carbon, and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems, in order to apply this learning towards environmental sustainability initiatives. Laboratory exercises are designed to provide students with hands-on experience sampling and describing soils and vegetation in the field and in the lab.
Prerequisites: AP/SC GEOG 1400 6.00 or a 1000 level science course
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week

GEOG 2600

Geomorphology I
AP GEOG 2600 3.00
This course concentrates on basic principles and fundamental concepts in geomorphology, including energy flows in geomorphic systems, hill slope forms and materials, weathering and landforms, and drainage basin geomorphology and hydrology (with a particular emphasis on Canadian examples).
Expanded Course Description
The course starts with a brief survey of the history of geomorphological thought and the development of geomorphology as a science. It then surveys modes of formulating significant geomorphological questions and predominant types of investigation. The course then concentrates on basic principles and fundamental concepts in geomorphology. The course is process-oriented. The main topics addressed include the systems approach, energy flows, plate tectonics, volcanicity, weathering, slope forms and materials, drainage basins and hydrology, glacial, fluvioglacial, periglacial processes and landforms, coastal and desert geomorphology. The course is a prerequisite for Geomorphology II which looks at more fundamental processes such as entrainment of sediment, transport and deposition in greater detail.
Prerequisites: AP/SC GEOG 1400
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 2610

Geomorphology II
AP GEOG 2610 3.00
This course concentrates on geomorphic processes and landforms (with a particular emphasis on Canadian examples). Five main areas are explored: fluvial forms and processes; the glaciation of Canada and glacial mechanics; periglaciation; aeolian processes; and coastal processes and landforms.
Expanded Course Description
Prerequisites: AP/SC/GEOG 2600 3.00 or Permission from instructor
Recommendations: AP/SC/GEOG 2340 3.00
Format: 2h Lecture + Online Assignments