3000 Level Courses

GEOG 3010

Geography Of Canada
AP GEOG 3010 6.00
A study of basic physical and human geographical patterns in Canada, stressing the processes which produced the latter, and selected characteristics of major Canadian regions.
Expanded Course Description
This Canadian regional geography course explores the physical, economic, political, social, cultural, and historical development of Canada as an urbanized nation. Lectures in the first term use the core- periphery model to frame discussions of the importance of transportation and communication networks to the development of regionally-based staples economies. Lectures in the second term use the spatial scale of the city- region to frame discussions of contemporary urban issues.
Prerequisites: AP GEOG 1400 6.00 or AP/SC GEOG 1410 6.00
Format: 3h Lecture per week
Notes: George Michie Memorial Scholarship

GEOG 3020


Geographical Transformation Of The Caribbean
AP GEOG 3020 6.00
This course analyzes the geographic status of the Caribbean islands. It examines how interactions between natural-environmental factors and human activities since the beginnings of settlement account for the current appearance, character, problems and prospects for individual islands and for the region.
Expanded Course Description
This course analyzes the geographical changes that have occurred in the islands of the Caribbean since 1492, including changes in population, economy, environmental conditions, social conditions, and political status. Current economic, social and environmental problems are related to a long series of transformations over the past 500 years, transformations which have led to migration, radical changes in the use of land, reshaping of the landscape, and to the development of unique Caribbean cultures. Geographical changes are traced using texts, maps, data, pictures, and video. Lectures, illustrations, and related data are compiled on the course's comprehensive website.
Exclusions: AP/GEOG 2020 6.00
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3040

Urban Environmental Justice
AP GEOG 3040 3.00
This course examines how processes of urbanization result in the unequal spatial and social distribution of environmental goods (e.g., pollution, toxic waste, landfills) in North American cities. It investigates the ways in which cities, as dynamic human ecologies in their own right, have increasingly become sites of environmental contestation, and explores the articulation of social justice, urbanization and environmentalism.
Expanded Course Description
Prerequisites: AP GEOG 1400 6.00 or AP/SC GEOG 1410 6.00
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3050

Nature, Power and Society
AP GEOG 3050 3.00
This course examines the geographic understanding of nature-society relationships. We review popular and scientific theories of environmental change, conflict and conservation, and examine the role that politics and power play in shaping ecological problems and issues.
Expanded Course Description
This course explores the role that politics and power play in shaping ecological problems and issues. With reference primarily to the developing world, we will review dominant apolitical understandings of environmental issues, such as deforestation, land degradation, pollution and biodiversity loss. We will then introduce a political ecological approach to understanding environmental change, conflict and conservation.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3060

Post-Colonial Geographies
AP GEOG 3060 3.00
This course examines the particular landscapes produced by colonialism and the struggles to move beyond it. Attention is paid to the use of space and place as mechanisms of control and liberation. Examples are international, and concern fictional and non-fictional landscapes.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3070

Gender, Migration and Population
AP GEOG 3070 6.00
Characteristics and problems in growth and distribution of human populations, including birth, fertility and death rates, population growth and environment, globalization and migration and population control policies.
Expanded Course Description
The interrelationships between gender, population, migration, and development constitute the crux of this course. What are the main issues concerning mortality, fertility, and migration in both the global North and South? What are the major socio-economic and geographic trends in global population dynamics? To what extent is the socioeconomic development of a country influenced by its population and migration variables? What are the gender dimensions of national population and immigration policies? What are the leading theories of migration? These are just a handful of the topics covered in AP/GEOG 3070. The course explores the relationships between population and the global crises of poverty, economic inequality, and the oppression of women, and highlights the contradictions in the socio-economic realities that affect the human condition across the globe. Among other things, students will learn about the characteristics of human population across the globe, paying special attention to the factors responsible for the spatial variations in the key components of population—i.e., mortality, fertility, and migration. With gender as the overarching theme, the course places the differential perspectives of women and men at the center of most of the class discussions.
Prerequisites: 3h Seminar per week

GEOG 3080

Reading Landscapes Through Time
AP GEOG 3080 3.00
Cultural landscapes change over time. This can result from changes in legal tenure, cultural adaptation, changes in the economic base or historical events. This course considers landscapes in various countries in chronological sequence.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3081

Historical Geographies of Modern Ireland
AP GEOG 3081 3.00
This course explores selected themes on the historical geography of Ireland, concentrating on the period since 1600. Attention is paid to the role and impact of economic, cultural, and political processes (including colonialism, famine, migration, nationalism and partition) that have shaped Irish landscapes and senses of place.
Expanded Course Description
Exclusions: AP/HIST 3460 6.00
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3130

The Global Economy
AP GEOG 3130 3.00
This course examines the evolution of the world economy as well as the major institutions that have supported it, and interprets the new geography of investment, production and consumption that accompanies it.
Expanded Course Description
The world economy has evolved over a long period marked by the globalization of trade, investment and, more recently, production. The course will begin by tracing this evolution and its geography. The course will then focus on contemporary world economy, and in particular the following elements: patterns of world trade and the Traid; transnational corporations; direct foreign investment and global finance; world cities; international migration; global institutions; and cultural imperialism. It will conclude by examining localglobal conflicts.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3140

Retail, Shopping, Society And Space
AP GEOG 3140 3.00
This course provides an overview of consumer shopping behaviour, the structure and process of retail location, and various social and economic issues associated with the contemporary retail economy. The geographical perspective is emphasized.
Expanded Course Description
This course is about the geography of needs, opportunities and enterprises. It aims to provide an overview on consumer shopping behavior, the structure and process of retail location, and the various economic, social and cultural issues associated with the contemporary retail economy. It also introduces the use of GIS as an analytical tool in retail analysis and location decision-making, and integrate its usage with various data sources. Topics discussed include but are not limited to: geodemographics and market segmentation; store location, store choice and market analysis; corporate spatial strategies; planned commercial development and redevelopment; new retail formats; internalization of retailing; shopping, leisure and lifestyle; impact on the workforce; and culture of consumption.
Prerequisites: AP/GEOG 1000 6.00 or AP/GEOG 1410 6.00
Format: Lecture and Computer Lab

GEOG 3200

Terrestrial Ecosystems
AP GEOG 3200 3.00
An examination of the structure and function of vegetation and soil systems. The course focuses on such topics as the adjustment of ecosystems to human modification and the role of biogeography in conservation and resource management.
Expanded Course Description
Prerequisites: AP/SC/GEOG 1400 6.00 or ES/ENVS 2420 3.00 or SC/BIOL 2050 4.00.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3220

Advanced Urban Geography
AP GEOG 3220 3.00
This course addresses significant contemporary urban issues that frame geographic understandings of metropolitan change in the twenty-first century.  Attention is directed towards understanding how cities are produced, consumed, and theorized as complex social, economic, ecological, and political systems.  Through lectures, discussion, and assignments students are encouraged to challenge geographical interpretations of the urban world, and to think critically about cities as products of capital investment, as collective public goods, and as socio-cultural spaces.
Expanded Course Description
Prerequisites: AP/GEOG 2220 6.00
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3250

Environmental Perception and Disasters
AP GEOG 3250 3.00
This course assesses the way people perceive their environment. Initially the course considers the theory of environmental perception. Considerable emphasis is placed on appraisal of natural and technological hazards and cultural perception.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3300

Space/Place
AP GEOG 3300 3.00
This course explores the construction, reproduction and representation of space, place and scale. Students are introduced to important socio-spatial theories that have affected how geographers understand such key concepts, including feminism, Marxism and postmodernism.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3340

Geoinformatics: GIS I
AP GEOG 3340 3.00
An introduction to the application of GIS to geographical/environmental problems. A broad conceptual overview of GIS approaches and their strengths and limitations. Students gain hands-on experience in the use of raster-based GIS technology with particular reference to resource management and planning topics.
Expanded Course Description
Remote sensing is introduced as the process of examining, measuring, and studying our planet from a distance, without physical contact. As an extension of photography, remote sensing relies on an understanding and digital recording of energy interactions at or near the surface of the Earth and within the atmosphere. The science of these interactions will be presented as a foundation to understanding the theoretical utility and application of remote sensing techniques. This course will then explore the typical sequence of image acquisition, processing, analysis, and accuracy assessment as related to physical and human influenced environments.
Exclusions: ES/ENVS 3520 3.00, AP/AS/SC GEOG 3180 3.00
Prerequisites: AP/SC/GEOG 2420 3.00
Recommendations: AP/SC/GEOG 2340 3.00
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week

GEOG 3360

Morphogensis of Soils
AP/SC GEOG 3360 3.00
This course is concerned with the systematic study of climate, vegetation, parent material, topography and time on the development, classification and chemistry of soils. A field trip and laboratory work will form part of this course.
Expanded Course Description
Format: Lecture, Labwork and Fieldwork

GEOG 3370

International Development: Critical Geographical Perspectives
AP GEOG 3370 3.00
The course deals with conceptual debates on 'Third World' development. It explores issues of development including economic growth and poverty, resource use, agrarian change, industrial transformation, servicesector development, rural-urban inequality, gender relations, neoliberalism and imperialism, and prospect for democracy and macro-level structural social change in the less developed world.
Expanded Course Description
Prerequisites: AP/GEOG 1000 6.00 or AP/GEOG 1410 6.00  or Permission from instructor
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3400


Dimensions Of Difference: Geography Of Gender, Race And Power
AP GEOG 3400 3.00
This course considers the construction, reproduction and representation of identity and difference in, through and across space and time. This course will introduce students to important feminist theorists and academics that have affected how geographers understand social relations through space, including gender relations and their intersection with race and power relations.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3421

Intermediate Statistical Methods In Geography
AP/SC GEOG 3421 3.00
This course examines the application of methods of geographical analysis to empirical data sets representing geographical and ecological phenomena. Bivariate linear regression and multiple regression and time/spatial series are emphasized.
Expanded Course Description
Exclusions: AP/SC/MATH 3033 3.00, AP/SC/MATH 3034 3.00, AP/SC/MATH 3230 3.00, AP/SC/MATH 3330 3.00, AP/POLS 3300 6.00, AP/SC/PSYC 2020 6.00, AP/SC/PSYC 2022 3.00, AS/SOCI 3030 6.00 and HH/PSYC 3030 3.00.
Prerequisites: AP/SC/GEOG 2420 3.00 or equivalent
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week

GEOG 3440

Geoinformatics: Remote Sensing I
AP/SC GEOG 3440 3.00
This course represents an introduction to the methods in which remote sensing data are collected, processed, and analyzed. An emphasis is placed on environmental applications. The synergy between the technologies of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) is introduced.
Expanded Course Description
Remote sensing is introduced as the process of examining, measuring, and studying our planet from a distance, without physical contact. As an extension of photography, remote sensing relies on an understanding and digital recording of energy interactions at or near the surface of the Earth and within the atmosphere. The science of these interactions will be presented as a foundation to understanding the theoretical utility and application of remote sensing techniques. This course will then explore the typical sequence of image acquisition, processing, analysis, and accuracy assessment as related to physical and human influenced environments.
Cross-listings: ES/ENVS 3521 3.00
Prerequisites: AP/SC/GEOG 2420 3.00 or Permission from instructor
Recommendations: AP/SC/GEOG 2340 3.00
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week

GEOG 3490

Making Canada
AP GEOG 3490 3.00
This course investigates the historical transformations of Canada's geography prior to the 20th century, including settlement by indigenous peoples, resettlement by colonizing and immigrant populations, the expansion of the nation-state's territory, land clearance, resource extraction and related geographies of the labour force, the creation of national parks, and urbanization.
Expanded Course Description
In clarifying the changing geography of Canada from the eighteenth century to the opening of the twentieth century, this course will highlight transformative developments in the expansion of the country across the continent. Special topics might include the evolution from colony to self-governing nation, the role and treatment of aboriginal populations, the importance and materials of transportation, the entry of old world populations, way-of-life and cultural comparisons among regions, and the rise of urbanization.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3500

Biogeography
AP/SC GEOG 3500 3.00
An analysis of the geography of plants and animals emphasizing processes that operate at the population level, the origin and diversity of plants and animals, geographic patterns of diversity, and dynamics of species populations from local to continental scales.
Expanded Course Description
Cross-listings: SC/BIOL 3500 3.00
Prerequisites: AP/SC/GEOG 2500 3.00 or SC/BIOL 2050 4.00
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week

GEOG 3510

Methods of Sediment
AP/SC GEOG 3510 3.00
An examination of methods of laboratory analysis of soils and sediments including soil/sediment sampling, particle size, water and organic component analyses, microscopic analysis and data interpretation. Special emphasis is placed on methods of analysis in soil/sediment research.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3520

Designing And Conducting Research In Geography
AP GEOG 3520 3.00
This course examines how geographers design and carry out research, and the different philosophical bases for creating geographical knowledge. A range of approaches will be covered, including research in qualitative human geography, quantitative human geography, and physical geography.
Expanded Course Description
This course covers qualitative research design and the philosophical bases of qualitative methodological approaches to knowledge, as well as practical techniques such as questionnaire surveys, participant observation, interviewing/focus groups, archival research and content/textual analysis. These techniques will be applied in practical settings involving field projects. The structure of the course is based on the required textbook, although the order of topics is different. The first half of the course will be organized as a series of lectures and seminar discussions based on assigned readings; after Reading Week, there will be more workshop- type activities as various qualitative research methods are both discussed and experienced in the field.
Exclusions: AP/GEOG 3740 3.00
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3540

Field Studies in Physical Geography
AP/SC GEOG 3540 3.00
This course begins with lectures on field research methodology. The second phase concentrates on defining a field problem, leading to data collection in the field. The final part of the course deals with data analysis, and reviews methodological implications. Two two-hour periods per week (including lectures, seminars and workshops), a three to four day field trip. One term.
Expanded Course Description
The course is an introduction to research design and methodology in physical geography. The course integrates on-campus preparation and report writing with off-campus fieldwork during which data collection and preliminary analysis are carried out. The fieldwork relates to a geographic problem offering scope for the special interests of students in various aspects of physical geography.
Prerequisites: AP/SC/GEOG 2420 3.00 and one of AP/SC GEOG 2400 6.00, AP/SC GEOG 2500 3.00 or AP/SC GEOG 2600 3.00 or permission of instructor
Format: 2h Lecture + 2h Lab per week.  A 3 – 4 day field trip.

GEOG 3590

Conservation in Canada
AP GEOG 3590 3.00
This course investigates the significance of conservation in Canada, charting its history, and examining the socio- political and economic trends that gave rise to a particular vision of conservation. The course additionally examines the social and environmental effects of conservation policies and practices and the significance of these measures for the Canadian nation-state.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3600

Nations and Nationalism
AP GEOG 3600 3.00
This course investigates the significance of conservation in Canada, charting its history, and examining the socio- political and economic trends that gave rise to a particular vision of conservation. The course additionally examines the social and environmental effects of conservation policies and practices and the significance of these measures for the Canadian nation-state.
Expanded Course Description
The purpose of this course is to investigate the rise of modern nations and nationalisms and the ways in which they shape our lives in both profound and seemingly trivial ways. We will focus in particular on:  the processes, practices and narratives that shape and reproduce nations and nationalisms; and their radically varied expressions, ranging from comic books to genocide.
While the course will cover various theories of nations and nationalism, we will explore these within geographically and historically specific contexts.  The course aims to help students develop the conceptual tools to critically evaluate various nations and nationalisms and to see what is at stake—politically, economically, socially, and environmentally—in their formulation.
To this end, we will examine nations and nationalisms in relation to several overlapping concepts and areas of inquiry, including space and geography, “nature,” identities and bodies, multicultural and indigenous nationalisms, and globalization.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3650

Wired Cities: Community, Technology And Changing Urban Places
AP GEOG 3650 6.00
Examines the impact of technology on urban form, urban function and community. Emphasis is placed on the social, economic and political parameters of urban infrastructure, community formation, and everyday life in the wake of technological change.
Expanded Course Description
Topics that will be explored will include the following: urban form and function and the impact of technological change on urban places; urban infrastructure and technology; cities as communication nexus and the evolution of communication technologies; community and neighborhood formation in the Information Age; the impact on individuals and the family; privacy issues; access to information; issues of governance; nationalism and globalization; and speculations about the future of cities.
Note: You do not need to be a computer or Internet 'expert' to take this course, but you should have a working knowledge of e-mail and also be somewhat familiar with using a web browser (Internet Explorer, Netscape, Safari, etc.) as the entire course is organized around these two activities. You may use your own computer at home, or ones located in the University's computer labs to participate in this course.
Format: Online
Notes: Course Website: http://www.yorku.ca/lcode/wiredcities/

GEOG 3700

Disaster! Earth’s Extreme Events
AP/SC GEOG 3700 3.00
Geographical perspectives on the physical processes behind extreme natural events (volcanoes, tsunami, tornadoes, hurricanes) and their impact on people. Many case studies and the literature will be used to understand how physical geography impacts human activities and settlements.
Expanded Course Description
Prerequisites: AP/SC GEOG 2600 3.00
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3710

Society, Space And Environment In South Asia
AP GEOG 3710 3.00
This course deals with the historical-geographical specificities of South Asia that are products of its own internal economic-political evolution and physical environmental context as well as of its historical and contemporary linkages to other parts of the world.
Expanded Course Description
Prerequisites: AP/GEOG 1000 6.00 or AP/GEOG 1410 6.00 or AP/SC/GEOG 1400 6.00, or permission of instructor.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3730

Comparative Urban Development
AP GEOG 3730 6.00
Significant dimensions of urbanization and urban-rural relationships are examined comparatively across major world regions, with emphasis upon Africa, Asia and Latin America. Students may choose a regional focus for research papers, including North America. Migration patterns, socio-economic structure of cities, values and images of rural and urban life, employment and planning to meet the needs of growing cities are the principal topics covered.
Expanded Course Description
Cross-listings: AP/SOSC 3730 6.00
Format: 3h Lecture per week
Notes: This course is administered through the Department of Social Science

GEOG 3750

Africa: Impoverishment Of A Continent
AP GEOG 3750 3.00
This course critically examines the changing geography and depletion of Africa's resources from the precolonial to the present, with an emphasis on current events. The course covers a range of topics, including agriculture, natural resource extraction, migration, the slave trade, and AIDS.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3760

The Philippines: Geographical Perspectives On Global Integration
AP GEOG 3760 3.00
This course examines the processes through which the Philippines was, and is, incorporated into the global system. Topics will include precolonial trade and religious networks; colonial integration into Spanish and American empires; modern integration through Developmental institutions, and manufacturing and resource commodity chains. Filipino migrations will be given careful consideration, especially those that link the Philippines and   Canada.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3770

Housing Policy And Income Security Policy
AP GEOG 3770 3.00
The course studies Canadian housing policy using the approaches of economics, political science and public administration. The course examines models of housing markets, the effects of housing policies, the politics and process of policy formation and procedures for policy evaluation.
Expanded Course Description
Cross-listings: AP/SOSC 3770 3.0
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3800

Geographies of Work
AP GEOG 3800 3.00
This course examines the geographies of productive and reproductive labour at multiple scales, including global, national, regional, urban, domestic and personal.
Expanded Course Description
This course explores how human struggles to “make a living” simultaneously shape and are shaped by changing economic landscapes. The course addresses the different theoretical perspectives on work, both paid and unpaid. With a primary focus on workers in advanced capitalist economies, the course discusses both new and old spatial divisions of labour and the restructuring of work and workplaces at the international, local and household scales.
Format: 3h Lecture per week

GEOG 3900

Physical Geography of the City
AP GEOG 3900 3.00
This course explores the natural and physical systems of the city, focusing on the climate, water, geomorphology, biogeography of the urban landscape, including its built environment.
Expanded Course Description
Format: 3h Lecture per week